Home Modification Resources
Here you can find up-to-date information on all your health,
home modification and consumer needs. The library is continually
growing so be sure to visit often for updates and new articles.
- A Research-Based Strategy for Managing Housing Adaptations: Study Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental Trial (2014) -
This paper describes the design of a project evaluating the effects of using a
research-based strategy for managing housing adaptations (HAs); the evaluation
targets clients' perspectives in terms of activity, participation, usability,
fear of falling, fall incidence, use of mobility devices, and health-related
quality of life, and determines the societal effects of HAs in terms of costs.
- Accessibility Requirements for Covered Multifamily Dwellings Under the Fair Housing Act:
This 2013 document of the Department of Justice and the Department of Housing and Urban Development provides guidelines regarding the persons and structures that are covered by the accessible design and construction requirements of the Fair Housing Act.
- ADA Standards for Accessible Design: These 2010 Standards were set for newly designed and constructed facilities that fall under the purview of the ADA to be accessible and usable by persons with disabilities.
- A House for
All Children - This useful book provides guidelines
for creating a safe and supportive home environment for
children with physical disabilities.
- Aging-Accessible Homes Infographic. (US Census: 2017)
*** Gov Doc
Aging and Accessible Homes Infographic includes statistics showing that 79% of adults above the age of 65 have difficulty using the bathroom when reported living in a home without accessible bathroom features, only 2% of the 21.5 million homes with an adult age 65 and over have accessible ramps and that 1 in every 3 adults age 65 and over have trouble using some feature of their home.
- Aging in Place at Home: The Definitive Guide Part 1-
This guide is a comprehensive, one-stop encyclopedia of products
and solutions that make homes safer and more livable for Seniors.
Those who can benefit most from this resource include healthcare
professionals, social workers, caregivers, family members and,
most importantly, those who intend to age in place.
- CAPABLE Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Nurse, Occupational Therapist and Handyman to Reduce Disability Among Older Adults: Rationale and Design (2014) -
This paper presents the rationale and design for a clinical trial of a new
interdisciplinary program aimed to reduce disability among low income older
adults; the outcomes included decreased disability in self-care (ADL),
improvement in instrumental ADLS, strength, balance, walking speed, and health
- The Central Role of The Occupational Therapist In Facilitating Housing Adaptations/Home Modifications For Disabled Children. (Boniface and Morgan, 2017)
The Central Role of The Occupational Therapist In Facilitating Housing Adaptations/Home Modifications For Disabled Children. (Boniface and Morgan, 2017)
- Clinical reasoning guideline for home modification interventions. (Stark, S. L., Somerville, E., Keglovits, M., Smason, A., & Bigham, K. : 2015) -
This article targets occupational therapists and discusses a useful clinical reasoning tool for them to deliver complex interventions.
- Community Aging In Place, Advancing Better Living For Elders: A Bio-Behavioral-Environmental Intervention To Improve Function And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Disabled Older Adults (2011) -
This paper determines the effect size and acceptability of a multicomponent
behavior and home repair intervention for low-income disabled older adults.
The results found that the CAPABLE intervention was acceptable to participants
and feasible to provide and showed promising results.
- Complex environmental modifications. (Renda, Marnie, MEd, OTR/L,C.A.P.S., E.C.H.M., Shamberg, Shoshana, MS,O.T.R./L., F.A.O.T.A., & Young, Debra, MEd, OTR/L, SCEM,A.T.P., C.A.P.S. : 2015 ) -
This document provides a description of complex environmental modifications (CEMs) and highlights the role of occupational therapy practitioners as providers of service within this area.
- Cost Effectiveness Of A Home-Based Intervention That Helps Functionally Vulnerable Older Adults Age In Place At Home (Keall MD, Pierse N, Howden-Chapman P, 2012) -
This article outlines cost-effective fall prevention interventions.
- Cost-Benefit Analysis of Fall Injuries Prevented by a Programme of Home Modifications: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (2015) -
This document presents the cost effectiveness of Advancing Better Living for Elders (ABLE),
which involves occupational and physical therapy sessions and home modifications to address
client-identified functional difficulties, performance goals, and home safety.
- Cost Benefit Considerations Of Preventing Elderly Falls Through Environmental Modifications To Homes in Hana, Maui(2008) -
This paper estimates the cost benefit of the modifications from
construction costs and published reports of effectiveness and cost
of treating falls in Hawaii. The average cost of home modifications
was $800 and the average annual averted medical cost of falling was $1728.
- Effectiveness of Assistive Technology and Environmental Interventions in Maintaining Independence and Reducing Home Care Costs for the Frail Elderly. Mann, et al, 1999)-
Effectiveness of Assistive Technology and Environmental Interventions in Maintaining Independence and Reducing Home Care Costs for the Frail Elderly. Mann, et al, 1999)
- Effects of a Multifactorial Fall Prevention Program on Fall Incidence and Physical Function in Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Risk of Falls; (Lee, et al, 2012). -
A multifactorial fall prevention program with exercise intervention may reduce the risk of falls in the short-term but not necessarily in the long-term. Awareness is key to reduce falls.
- Environmental and Behavioral Circumstances and Consequences of Falls in a Senior Living Development(Daejin Kim, Sherry Ahrentzen, 2017)
Falls occurring in the bathroom can cause severe damage; three types of activities and five behavioral factors related to falls are identified.
- Environmental Assessment And Modification To Prevent Falls In Older People (2011)
This paper assesses the effectiveness of an environmental falls
prevention intervention delivered by qualified occupational therapists
or unqualified trained assessors. The study found that an environmental
assessment prescribed by an occupational therapist significantly reduced
the number of falls in high-risk individuals whereas that prescribed by a
trained assessor did not.
- Evidence-Based Programs and Best Practices in Home Assessment and Modification-
The University of Southern California Leonard Davis School of Gerontology/homemods.org partnered with the National Council on Aging (NCOA) to compile and feature home modification and home safety programs falling in the categories of evidence-based, best practices, and innovative. Over 150 organizations from the aging, disability, housing, and health care sectors nationwide contributed to this inventory of home modification programs and practices
- Evidence-based guidelines for the secondary prevention of falls in older adults. Gerontology; Moreland, J., Richardson, J., Chan, D. H., O'Neill, J, 2003:-
This article aims to provide reliable and consistent practice guidelines to help prevent secondary falls in elderly adults. The guidelines include home and institutional assessment guidelines as well as recommended interventions.
- The Experience of Malaysian Occupational Therapists in Conducting Home Assessments and Home Visits with Older Clients
Muhammad Hibatullah Romli1,2, Lynette Mackenzie1, Maw Pin Tan3, Meryl Lovarini1, Lindy Clemson1
- Falls prevention: Investigating best practice for community occupational therapists. Occupational Therapy Now; Anna Tzingounakis, 2012-
This study focuses on the best practices and tools used by Occupational Therapists on Prince Edward Island, Canada to develop an interdisciplinary, multifactorial falls prevention program.
- Reducing hazard related falls in people 75 years and older with significant visual impairment: How did a successful program work? Injury Prevention.
Grow SJ, Robertson MC, Campbell AJ, Clarke GA, Kerse NM. 2006 Oct;12(5):296 - 301.
- Home Fit Guide
This AARP Guidebook has questions and solutions for consumers to determine design features and products to make a supportive home.
- Home Modification and Interorganizational Collaboration: Assessing the Relationship between California’s Area Agencies on Aging and Centers for Independent Living (PDF) -
A report on the role of California’s AAAs and CILs in the provision of home modifications.
Modification Discussion Archives- Hosted by the University
of Buffalo, this site features archives of monthly online
discussion on various aspects of home modifications.
- Home Modification Funding Sources- The University of Southern California Leonard Davis School of Gerontolog/homemods.org partnered with the National Council on Aging to review and compile this extensive inventory of home modification funding sources
- Home Modifications to Reduce Injuries from Falls in the Home Injury Prevention Intervention (HIPI) Study: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial (2015) -
This study tested the safety benefits of home modifications such as handrails,
grab rails, outside lighting, edging and more. The findings suggest that
low-cost home modifications and repairs can be a means to reduce injury in the
- Home Modifications: Use, Cost, and Interactions with Functioning Among Near-Elderly and Older Adults
This 2008 report from the US Department of Health and Human Services outlines the use of home modifications by older adults.
- Home Safety Assessment and Modification to Reduce Injurious Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults: Cost-Utilty and Equity Analysis (2016) -
This article determines the health gain, cost-utility and health equity
impacts from home safety assessment and modification (HSAM) for reducing falls
in older people. Findings include: the provision of a HSAM intervention
produces considerable health gain, is highly cost-effective, and provides a
promising initial approach among older people.
- Home Visits By An Occupational Therapist For Assessment And Modification Of Environmental Hazards: A Randomized Trial Of Falls Prevention (Cumming et al, 1999) -
This evidence based study illustrates the effect of home visits by Occupational Therapists on the prevention of falls. It shows that home modification and behavioral changes involving OTs can improve safety in the living environments by reducing the risk of falls.
- Housing America’s Seniors This report focuses on the housing needs of the elderly population. Most seniors wish to age in place but have to face the consequences of aging, and thus are restricted in their housing choices. The report examines the housing needs of America’s senior population, and urges the housing industry and public policy makers to respond with home modifications, supportive services, and housing alternatives. It also projects the demographic and economic profiles of the next generation of seniors and examines their likely housing choices, labor force participation, and lifestyles.
Highlights: Home Modification and Repair This convenient
checklist provides an overall assessment of your home --
a vital first step to home modification.
- Housing in America - The Baby Boomers Turn 65 This 2012 report from the Urban Land Institute examines the housing market changes impacted by the baby boom generation and older as they make housing choices.
- How people with dementia and their carers adapt their homes. A qualitative study
Frances Allen, Rebecca Cain, Caroline Meyer
- The Importance of Home Modification for Occupational Participation and Safety for Low Income Older Adult Homeowners (Oaks, 2017)
Using quantitative data, this study investigates how home modifications involving Occupational Therapists can lead to increased safety and activity involvement in the daily lives of low income aging adults
- Improving America's Housing 2015: Emerging Trends in the Remodeling Market:This document, created by the Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard, features recent remodeling trends and includes discussions and data about the potential for growth in the accessibility remodeling market for older persons and persons with disabilities.
Interventions For Preventing Falls In Older People Living In The Community (2012):
This paper assesses the effects of interventions designed to reduce
the incidence of falls in older people living in the community and
finds hat group and home-based exercise programs as well as home
safety interventions (and more) reduce rate of falls and risk of falling.
- Keall, M. D., Pierse, N., Howden-Chapman, P., Guria, J., Cunningham, C. W., & Baker, M. G. (2016).
Cost - benefit analysis of fall injuries prevented by a programme of home modifications: a cluster randomised controlled trial.Injury prevention, injuryprev-2015.
the Way: A Key to Independence -
A series of booklets on lighting written in collaboration
between AARP and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer
The LRC developed three guidelines that address the needs
of health care professionals, designers and builders, and
the general public, including older adults and their families.
- Longitudinal Changes In Everyday Life After Home Modifications For People Aging With Disabilities (2009) -
This paper investigates the longitudinal impacts of home modifications
on the difficulty of performing everyday life tasks for people aging
with disabilities, and whether other factors had any additional impacts.
The results found that home modifications are effective in decreasing
difficulty in performing everyday life tasks up to six months after the
installation and to be effective they need to be installed in a timely fashion.
- Meucci, M. R., Gozalo, P., Dosa, D., & Allen, S. M. (2016). Variation in the presence of simple home modifications of older Americans: findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
Life More Livable: Simple Adaptations for Living at Home
After Vision Loss This
newly updated and revised guide offers practical tips and
useful illustration to help persons with vision impairment
National Directory of Home Modification Resources This
helpful directory provides information to aging network,
services, and housing providers, and consumers about programs
that modify and repair homes for elder people.
- The Personal and Health Service Impact of Falls in 85 Year Olds: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Newcastle 85+ Cohort Study; (Collerton, et al, 2012)
A discussion of the prevalence of falls among seniors 85 years and older, and the acute and preventative services required
- Petersson, I., Lilja, M., Hammel, J., & Kottorp, A. (2008).
Impact of home modification services on ability in everyday life for people ageing with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(4), 253-260. doi:10.2340/16501977-0160
- Preliminary Data From Community in Aging in Place Advancing Better Living for Elders, a Patient-Directed, Team-Based Intervention to Improve Physical Function and Decrease Nursing Home Utilization: The First 100 Individuals to Complete a centers for medicare and Medicaid Service Innovation Project (2015)
Various programs have proven to be effective at reducing fall risks, such as physical training programs, risk factors modification programs, and multifactorial preventive programs.
- Prevention of falls in the elderly - a review(M. K. Karlsson, H. Magnusson, T. von Schewelov, B. E. Rosengren, 2013)
shows data from Community Aging in place, Advancing Better Living for Elders
(CAPABLE), a model designed to overcome the functional and home environmental
barriers of older adults. Initial findings demonstrated that daily living
limitations improved in 79% of the first 100 people who completed the intervention.
- Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement; (Moyer, 2012)
Exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation are suggested by the USPSTF to reduce falls for seniors who live in community settings
- Preventing falls in community-dwelling frail older people using a home intervention team (HIT): Results from the randomized falls-HIT trial; (Nikolaus T., Bach M., 2003);
Home interventions, such as assessing environmental hazards and suggesting potential modifications, alongside technical trainings were found to be effective in reducing the risk of falls among seniors with a fall history.
- Randomised Factorial Trial Of Falls Prevention Among Older People Living In Their Own Homes (Lesley, et al, 2002)
This study explores the effectiveness of three interventions (group based exercise, home hazard management, and vision improvement) on decreasing the risk of falls in older adults living at home
- Removing Environmental Barriers In The Homes Of Older Adults With Disabilities Improves Occupational Performance (2004) -
This study examines the effectiveness of an occupational therapy home
modification intervention program by examining differences in self-reported
occupational performance before and after intervention in a population of
community-dwelling older adults with disabilities. Overall, the mean scores on
the satisfaction and performance subscales indicated an improvement in performance
and satisfaction with occupational performance.
The State of Housing in America in the 21st Century: A Disability Perspective | NCD.govA report of the National Council on Disability that includes an evaluation and recommendations of and for public laws, policies, and program initiatives affecting housing for Americans who have accessible housing needs.
- Stark, S. L., Somerville, E., Keglovits, M., Smason, A., & Bigham, K. (2015).
Clinical reasoning guideline for home modification interventions. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(2), 1-8.
- Summary of Senior Accessible Housing Act. Congress; Patrick Murphy (Sponsor) 2016
This bill summary explains the introduction of a plan that amends the Internal Revenue Code. It aims to grant adults aged 60 and over up to $30,000 in nonrefundable credit for modifications made on their home to help them live safely, independently, and comfortably.
- Systematic Review Of The Effect Of Home Modification
And Fall Prevention Programs On Falls And The Performance Of Community-Dwelling Older Adults (2012)
This paper explores the impact of fall prevention programs and home
modifications on falls and the performance of community dwelling older
adults. The most impactful results were found for multifactorial programs
including home evaluations and modifications, exercise, education, medication
checks and assistive technology.
- Universal Design and Green Home Survey The purpose of this survey is to help people anticipate and plan for their current or future housing needs and budgets.
Use the survey, as well as the Green Home Survey Checklist, to assess your home's sustainability and to learn more about green design.
- Update On Falls Prevention For Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Review Of Single And Multifactorial Intervention Programs (2008) -
This article investigates the effectiveness of fall prevention programs
for community-dwelling older adults. The comprehensive critical analysis
of the literature found: (1) multifactorial fall prevention programs appear
to be more effective for older individuals with a previous fall history versus
a nonselect group; and (2) medication and vision assessment with appropriate
health practitioner referral should be included in a falls screening examination and more.
Fall Prevention Programs for Seniors - Developed by
the National Center on Injury Prevention and Control, this
document contains selected model programs that use home
assessment and modification, can serve as a guide for organizations
that wish to develop fall prevention programs for older
Variation in the presence of simple home modifications of older Americans: findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study. (Meucci, M. R., Gozalo, P., Dosa, D., & Allen, S. M. : 2016).
This article has findings including those with less education, income, and social support are less likely to have home modifications.
- What is the ADA? Learn how this national civil rights law protects people
- Why Older People Accept
or Reject Assistive Technology This article will help
better understand the suitable approach to older adults
on assistive technology.
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